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工业清洗的清洗方法有哪些?

来源:/ 时间: 2021-11-29 浏览次数: 2

浸泡清洗法
Immersion cleaning method
在槽中加入酸性或碱性清洗液,将被需要清洗的物件放入进行浸泡,使表面和内腔的附着物通过浸泡方式变软或自然脱落的方式。这种方式物理浸湿,纯粹是靠清洗液的化学反应作用来达到清洗目的,需要很长时间,并且清洗能力弱。
Add acidic or alkaline cleaning solution into the tank and soak the objects to be cleaned, so that the attachments on the surface and inner cavity become soft or fall off naturally by soaking. Physical wetting in this way is purely based on the chemical reaction of the cleaning solution to achieve the purpose of cleaning, which takes a long time, and the cleaning ability is weak.
喷气清洗法
Jet cleaning
在清洗槽内安装多路喷气口喷嘴,喷气口方向对准清洗物件,打开气泵将物体表面的灰尘或脏物吹走,有的工厂大部分是采用工业用气枪,工人手握对着吹的方式,该方式主要去除的是灰尘等没有粘附性的脏污,对油脂、蜡质、胶性污垢没有作用。
A multi-channel air jet nozzle is installed in the cleaning tank. The direction of the air jet is aligned with the cleaning object, and the air pump is turned on to blow away the dust or dirt on the surface of the object. In some factories, most of them use industrial air guns and workers hold hands to blow. This method mainly removes dust and other non adhesive dirt, which has no effect on grease, wax and colloidal dirt.
喷水清洗法
Water jet cleaning method
同喷气法一样,安装多路喷嘴,使清洗液在喷射在清洗物表面,依靠水流的冲击力,将水或混合性的清洗液对物体进行清洗,特别是在高压状态下,洗涤能力显著加强。
Like the air jet method, a multi-channel nozzle is installed to spray the cleaning liquid on the surface of the cleaning object. Depending on the impact of the water flow, the water or mixed cleaning liquid is used to clean the object. Especially under high pressure, the washing capacity is significantly strengthened.
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机械刷洗法
Mechanical brushing method
在清洗槽内用工装夹具安装毛刷,滚辊,拉丝布等,将需要清洗的物体放在槽中,利用机械的运动,工具毛刷、布等与工件磨擦实现清洗,这个在浸泡的同时辅助机械力,是一种比较初级原始的清洗方式,有直接效果,但不适合比较精密型或清洗品质较高的工件,特别是对精密件有损伤。
Install brush, roller, wire drawing cloth, etc. in the tool fixture in the cleaning tank, put the objects to be cleaned in the tank, and use the mechanical movement, tool brush, cloth, etc. to realize cleaning by friction with the workpiece. This auxiliary mechanical force while soaking is a relatively primary and original cleaning method, which has direct effect, but it is not suitable for more precise or high-quality workpieces, Especially damage to precision parts.
超声清洗法
Ultrasonic cleaning method
在清洗槽内安装超声波换能器,超声波换能器发出震动波,在液体中传播,将液体分子拉裂成空化泡,由于周围压力的增大,空化泡迅速破碎,破碎的瞬间产生巨大的能量,从而把物体上的粘附物,碎屑,油脂等剥离下来,达到清洗的目的,该方法是一种高效无损的清洗方式。
An ultrasonic transducer is installed in the cleaning tank. The ultrasonic transducer sends out vibration waves and propagates in the liquid to pull and crack the liquid molecules into cavitation bubbles. Due to the increase of surrounding pressure, the cavitation bubbles break rapidly and generate huge energy at the moment of breaking, so as to peel off the adhesion, debris and grease on the object to achieve the purpose of cleaning, This method is an efficient and nondestructive cleaning method.
真空清洗法
Vacuum cleaning method
利用真空泵产生真空,将水中游离气体和溶解气体释放出来,通过排气阀排出,脱气后的是不饱和水,具有一定的吸取性,来进行清洗,当然该方法与超声结合效果更好。
The vacuum pump is used to generate vacuum, release the free gas and dissolved gas in the water, and discharge them through the exhaust valve. The degassed water is unsaturated water, which has certain absorption for cleaning. Of course, the combination of this method and ultrasound has better effect.
干冰清洗法
Dry ice cleaning method
干冰具有独特的热力学性能,温度极低(-78℃),当干冰颗粒被压缩空气冲击到被清洗物表面时,会迅速升华,在千分之几秒内体积膨胀近800倍,同时与待洗零件表面产生热交换,达到清洗零件表面的目的,因其设备造价和使用成本等因素,目前采用的相对较少。
Dry ice has unique thermodynamic properties and extremely low temperature (- 78 ℃). When dry ice particles are impacted by compressed air on the surface of the cleaned object, they will sublimate rapidly, expand nearly 800 times in a few thousandths of a second, and generate heat exchange with the surface of parts to be cleaned to achieve the purpose of cleaning the surface of parts. At present, relatively few are used due to factors such as equipment cost and use cost.
滚筒清洗法
Drum cleaning method
在槽内安装滚筒或波轮装置,旋转时产生高速离心力,使柔软物体甩向筒壁,上升后又回流下降,形成中心涡流,一方面带动水流运动,一方面类似拍打搅拌,再加上洗涤剂的作用,达到清洁的效果。
A drum or wave wheel device is installed in the tank. During rotation, a high-speed centrifugal force is generated to throw the soft object towards the cylinder wall, rise and then return and fall, forming a central vortex. On the one hand, it drives the water flow, on the other hand, it is similar to beating and stirring, coupled with the role of detergent, so as to achieve the cleaning effect.
饱和蒸汽法
Saturated steam method
利用饱和蒸汽的高温,软化污垢,清洗零件表面的油渍污物,将其汽化蒸发。清洗效果比较好,但由于蒸发的一些残留物不能掉落,还需辅助其他方法将其除去。
Use the high temperature of saturated steam to soften dirt, clean oil stains and dirt on the surface of parts, and vaporize them. The cleaning effect is relatively good, but since some evaporated residues cannot fall, they need to be removed by other methods.
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